Adolescence: Social Development (chapter 9)

Be sure to follow your Lesson 5 directions! 

© 2022. Angela G. Bagne. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

© 2022. Angela G. Bagne. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Erikson’s Psychosocial 8 Stages (Reminder: Full stages/explanations to reference is in your Lesson content.)

1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0 – 2)

2. Autonomy vs. Shame (1 ½ – 4)

3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 ½ – school age)

4. Industry vs. Inferiority (elementary – at least junior high age)

5. Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (13 – 20)

Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages (8)

Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority

-from elementary school to at least part of junior high school


-Masters rules with peers

-Masters rules with games


-Self-discipline- homework

-Competency in academic skills

Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages (8)

Stage 5: Identity vs. Identity Diffusion

– from about ages 13 – 20

“WHO AM I?” = key adolescent crisis




-Sexual Identity

-Develops ideals

The Search for Identity

  • Adolescents are self-absorbed…

adolescent egocentrism

The Search for Identity

  • Imaginary audience: feeling that they are watched constantly, like actors

The Search for Identity

  • FEEL… experiences and feelings are unique, no one has ever felt as they do the personal fable

The Search for Identity

  • A common characteristic is the illusion of invulnerability —misfortune only happens to others

Self-Esteem in Adolescence

  • Self-esteem = declines going into and through adolescence
  • inconsistent across domains/activities
  • Importance of parenting again

The Myth of Storm and Stress

Most adolescents:

  • Admire and love their parents
  • Rely on parent’s advice
  • Embrace many of their parents’ values
  • Feel loved by their parents
  • Some truth to “storm and stress”… why?

Sexual Orientation: What DO we know about why homosexuality exists?

  • Boys with older brothers are more likely to be homosexual than boys without older brothers.
  • Possible biochemical effect of producing male children
  • Possible that hormones affect temperament, which may in turn affect behavior and feelings of being different.
  • Mother nature and evolution? Homosexuality has been identified in many species, and is thought to be a way to control the population

Sexual Orientation: What DO we know about why homosexuality exists?

  • Males vs. females
  • A portion of females who are homosexual have been sexually abused and thus may reject men and look to other women for a comfortable, caring relationship
  • Although we don’t understand a clear biological mechanism for “causing” homosexuality, it is largely accepted that this is a likely possibility for explaining much of why homosexuality exists. After all, would you choose to have others treat you harshly, look down upon you, and not accept you? Of course not.

Career Development

1. crystallization begins (13 or 14)

take their own talents and interests to start limiting their thinking about careers

2. Specification (18)

learning more about certain lines of work and possibly begin training

**part-time work good?

3. Implementation

enter the workforce and learn firsthand

Drug Use

  • Teenage Drinking: It harms the brain and it interferes with what? Identity formation! You can’t explore who and what you want to be if you are busy drinking. Heavy drug use also stunts emotional growth until heavy drinking stops. Yikes.
  • Why do adolescents drink?
  • Experimentation, relaxation, escape
  • Feelings of exhilaration
  • Friends/parents
  • Teenage Smoking
  • Teens who smoke usually begin early (6th/7th grade)
  • More likely to smoke if
  • parents smoke
  • friends smoke

Depression: 3-10% (more girls)

Depressed adolescents prefer to be alone more than non-depressed adolescents (vicious cycle)

*Why more females?

Some causes:

1. External locus of control… learned helplessness

2. Lack of social skills  lack of friends  lowered self-esteem

4. Biochemical imbalance (e.g., reduced levels of norepinephrine and serotonin)  inability to experience pleasure

5. Negative explanatory style (those who are naturally pessimists, or likely to focus on the bad instead of the good)

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