pathophysiology discussion post
J.C is an 82-year-old white man who was evaluated by a GI specialist due to abdominal discomfort, loss of appetite, weight loss, weakness, and occasional nausea.
Past Medical History (PMH):
Patient is Diabetic, controlled with Metformin 500 mg by mouth twice a day, Lantus 15 units SC bedtime. Hypertensive, controlled with Olmesartan 20 mg by mouth once a day. Atrial Fibrillation is controlled with Rivaroxaban 15 mg by mouth once a day and bisoprolol 10 mg by mouth once a day.
Hb 12.7 g/dl; Hct 38.8% WBC 8.2; Glycemia 74mg/dl; Creatinine 0.8 mg/dl; BUN 9.8 mg/dl; AST 21 U/L ALT 17 U/L; Bil T 1.90 mg/dl; Ind 0.69 mg/dl; Dir 1.21 mg/dl.
Endoscopic Ultrasound of the Pancreas. Solid mass in the head of pancreas 4 cms, infiltrating Wirsung duct. The solid mass impress to infiltrate the superior mesenteric vein. Perilesional node is detected, 1.5 cms, metastatic aspect. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy: Ductal adenocarcinoma.
Case Study Questions:
- Please name the potential most common sites for metastasis on J.C and why?
- What are tumor cell markers and why tumor cell markers are ordered for a patient with pancreatic cancer?
- Based on the case study described, proceed to classify the tumor based on the TNM Stage classification. Why is this classification important?
- Discuss characteristics of malignant tumors regarding their cells, growth, and ability to spread.
- Describe the carcinogenesis phase when a tumor metastasizes.
- Choose the tissue level that is affected in the patient discussed above: Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, or Neural. Support your answer.
- Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in the current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources other than your textbook.