Riccucci, N. M., Van Ryzin, G. G., & Jackson, K. (2018). Representative bureaucracy, race, and policing: A survey experiment. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 28(4), 506-518.
The authors are employing a theoretical strategy of symbolic representation to determine whether black police officers within local agencies have the power to influence how white and black citizens judge their performance, fairness and trustworthiness in terms of citizen complaints about police misconduct. The results identify that there is high perceived trust, performance, fairness and trust among black citizens when the agency is made up of many black officers. however, the impact of greater black law enforcement representation in the agency is perceived negatively. This is an indication that symbolic representation in the law enforcement agency have a significant influence to how people judge and view the law enforcement department.
Teasley, M. L., Schiele, J. H., Adams, C., & Okilwa, N. S. (2018). Trayvon Martin: Racial profiling, Black male stigma, and social work practice. Social Work, 63(1), 37-46.
In their study, Teasley et al., (2018) focus on addressing the gap existing in social literature on the deleterious impacts of racial profiling as it relates to the law enforcers targeting male African-Americans. The authors have used the case of Trayvon Martin to demonstrate how black male stigma and racial profiling can help in dispensing social injustice and inequality for African American men. The author find that the increasing profiling and discrimination of black men can only be resolved by working with social organizations to neutralize the effect.
Kovera, M. B. (2019). Racial disparities in the criminal justice system: Prevalence, causes, and a search for solutions. Journal of Social Issues, 75(4), 1139-1164 .
Kovera (2019) identify that racial profiling within the criminal justice system is prevalent in key areas such as policing, populations, prison and participation on jury proceedings. The author identify that the issue continues to persist due to the bias existing in the composition of jury making it difficult to eradicate reduce the current racial bias. Therefore, the author proposes that implementation of more general policies that will not be limited to a particular race will be effective in eliminating the current bias.
Pittman, C. (2020). “Shopping while Black”: Black consumers’ management of racial stigma and racial profiling in retail settings. Journal of Consumer Culture, 20(1), 3-22.
The author is drawing on qualitative data obtained from 55 African-Americans living around the New York area. The goal was to determine their experience with consumer racial profiling. The findings of their study indicate that race has the power to transform the status and meaning attached to products when they are owned or sought out by racial minorities. The examination of Black’s experiences with retail racism and cultural techniques reveal that they tend to adopt different treatment when they are treated in an indiscriminating way.
Gaston, S. (2019). Enforcing race: A neighborhood-level explanation of Black–White differences in drug arrests. Crime & Delinquency, 65(4), 499-526.
The author aims to investigate the origin of black-white differences when law enforcement officers are performing drug arrest by performing a neighborhood assessment of the differences in police discriminatory scrutiny and policing hypotheses. The author examines arrests made in 78 neighborhoods in St. Louis from 2009 and 2013. The findings identify that neighborhood racial composition widely shapes drug enforcement policing, drug associated calls for service by citizens, property crime and violent rates and social economic disadvantage. Therefore, the author concludes that officers tend to engage in ‘out of place’ profiling when enforcing drug laws as suspects are jailed in terms of race.