nificantly associated with DDQ-Negative Rein- forcement scores (see Table 4). This suggests that greater craving to reduce negatives states was associated with obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors related to prescription opioids and greater expectancies of prescrip- tion opioids to relieve pain when controlling for the vari- ance explained by the other key characteristics.


The current findings indicate that desire-and-intention to use prescription opioids and

craving for relief from negative states

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