1-Ultraviolet (UV) radiation comes from the sun, sunlamps, and tanning booths. It causes early aging of the skin that can lead to skin cancer. People of all ages and skin tones should limit the amount of time they spend in the sun, especially between mid-morning and late afternoon, and avoid other sources of UV radiation, such as tanning beds. It is important to keep in mind that UV radiation is reflected by sand, water, snow, and ice and can go through windshields and windows. Even though skin cancer is more common among people with a light skin tone, people of all skin tones can develop skin cancer, including those with dark skin. Wear a hat with a wide brim all around that shades your face, neck, and ears. Wear sunglasses that block UV radiation to protect the skin around eyes. Wear long sleeves and long pants. Tightly woven, dark fabrics are best. Some fabrics are rated with an ultraviolet protection factor (UPF). The higher the rating, the greater the protection from sunlight. Use sunscreen products with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15. Ionizing radiation can cause cell damage that leads to cancer.
Sunlight and ionizing radiation. Retrieved from
2-Educating a person with life style modification (smoking, excessive body weight, safe work place) and removing the factors that can predispose to different types of cancer can enhance the layperson exposure and awareness to the disease. But one point is not clear to me, how can physical inactivity be a predisposing factor to cancer?
3-Modifiable risk factors are a risk factors to cancer, that a person can control them (NCI, 2017). Cancer can be caused by environmental factors, diet and life style however our knowledge to the modifiable risk factors can impact for cancer exposure. Some of the modifiable risk factors for lung cancer are smoking, workplace risk factors, radon etc. so I would educate and recommend my patient to avoid those risk factors. For instance, quitting smoking can decrease the exposure to lung cancer. To do so smokers need advice from experts (counselor) on how to quit smoking such as the use of nicotine replacement products and antidepressants therapy. A person who quits smoking for 10 years can lowers his/her risk of developing lung cancer by 30% to 50% (NCI, 2017).
A safe work place is a work place environment without chemicals that can cause to lung cancer such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel and chromium. In addition to that a work place should be smoke free to avoid secondhand smoke. Prevent high level of radon at your home for example on preventing leakage by sealing the basement (NCI, 2017).
National Cancer Institute (NCI) (2017) Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version retrieved [online] from: https://www.cancer.gov/types/lung/patient/lung-prevention-pdq
4-, after reading your post I stopped to think about the link between nutrition/ lack of activity and cancer. Cancer does not “run” in my family. So there is definitely no chromosome issue that is being passed along. For many, many generations back my ancestors have been farmers. I even have family in North Carolina who were tobacco farmers. They did not develop cancer. I did have one second cousin contract brain cancer. The doctor felt like it was caused by gasoline. He was a garage attendant for many years as a teenager and young adult. This was a time when you could get full service at the gas station. Anyway, my point is ….i wonder if family after me will start to develop cancer as our society becomes more and more sedentary. Everyone I know is still very active even though no one farms anymore. We all have jobs that naturally have moderate activity built into it. Will my grand children become sedentary due to so much automation in our lives? I guess we will see if things like this start to cause cancer in an otherwise healthy family.
5-Developing the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for developing cervical cancer. This is a group of over one hundred and fifty viruses that can cause symptoms such as warts. The virus can cause infections around the genitals, mouth, throat, and anus, spreading through unprotected sex. Sometimes the infections resolve on their own, but other times the infections can become chronic and lead to cell changes and cervical cancer. HPV can be prevented through the vaccine and practicing safe sex. It is also important to have regular pap smears (American Cancer Society, 2019). I would focus on educating my patients on the importance of reproductive health and seeing their gynecologist regularly. I would educate on the importance of safe sex practices and give vaccination education.
American Cancer Society. (2019). HPV and HPV treatment. Retrieved from
6-I think it would be important to educate on the importance of eating healthy and moving everyday. The American Cancer Society website is a great resource to provide them with. They recommend staying lean and maintaining a healthy weight. They recommend that adults have one hundred and fifty minutes of moderate activity each week or seventy-five minutes of vigorous activity. They recommend limiting sedentary activity. They recommend limiting processed food, increasing fruits and vegetables, and choosing whole grain foods (American Cancer Society, 2019). I think all of these recommendations would be important to educate patients in order to decrease their risk of cancer. Even if some of these changes might be difficult for patients to make, if they could start to incorporate some of these behaviors, it could help to make a difference.
American Cancer Society. (2019). Summary of the ACS g